Friday, November 28, 2014
Wednesday, November 26, 2014
November 26, 2014 From the Weekly Essentials of Health by Usana Health Sciences
Inadequate vitamin D levels are related to cognitive decline in the elderlyAt a Glance
A new study has confirmed previous research indicating a possible association between low vitamin D blood levels and an increased risk of cognitive decline in the elderly.
Read more about this research below.
In addition to its role in bone health, vitamin D also plays a role in mental health by protecting the brain in several ways: reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension (diseases that affect the brain), providing antioxidant mechanisms, regulating calcium levels, supporting the immune system, enhancing nerve conduction, and by its role in detoxification. Many previous studies have concluded that inadequate vitamin D blood levels may be linked to a higher risk of cognitive impairment.
A recent study published in the journal Neurologytested the hypothesis that low vitamin D blood levels are associated with risk of cognitive decline.
The Italian population-based study included 1,927 elderly subjects. Serum vitamin D levels were measured at baseline, and cognitive function was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A MMSE score lower than 24 indicated cognitive dysfunction. Over a period of a 4.4 year follow-up, a decline of 3 or more points on the MMSE was considered clinically significant.
Compared to subjects with sufficient vitamin D levels (>30 ng/ml or 75 nmol/L), the subjects with vitamin D deficiency (
The results of this study confirm an independent association between vitamin D levels and mental decline in elderly adults. Although there is considerable variation from person to person, and testing prior to supplementation is generally recommended, most people need to take between 1,000 and 5,000 IU/day of vitamin D3 to achieve levels adequate to protect against cognitive decline.
Elena D. Toffanello et al. Vitamin D deficiency predicts cognitive decline in older men and women. Neurology. 2014 Nov 5. pii: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000001080. [Epub ahead of print]
Wednesday, November 19, 2014
November 19, 2014
Higher magnesium intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk
At a Glance
A meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies has found that magnesium intake is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk, and in a dose-dependent manner.
Read more about this research below.
Diabetes, and in particular Type 2 diabetes, is a growing health concern worldwide. Untreated or poorly controlled diabetes increases risks of many health conditions. Adults with diabetes are two to four times more likely to have heart disease or a stroke than adults without diabetes. Experts agree that diet plays an important role in the development and progression of type 2 diabetes. According to epidemiological evidence magnesium intake may be related to the incidence of diabetes. Magnesium is found primarily in whole grains, nuts and green leafy vegetables, and is an essential cofactor in enzymes involved in glucose metabolism.
In a study published in Diabetes Care, researchers conducted a meta-analysis to examine the association between magnesium intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes. The study included 13 prospective cohort studies and 536,318 participants. The included studies were published between 1999 and 2010 and involved follow-ups of up to 20 years.
After adjusting for geographic location, follow-up length, gender, or family history of type 2 diabetes, the combined studies indicated a significant (22%) reduction of risk of type 2 diabetes when comparing the highest magnesium intake group to the lowest. The inverse association was also more pronounced in overweight individuals, suggesting that high magnesium intake may have greater effects on improving insulin sensitivity in overweight individuals who are prone to insulin resistance. In the analysis of dose-response it was found that for every 100 mg/day increment in magnesium intake there was a 14% reduction in type 2 diabetes risk.
The results of this study provide additional evidence that magnesium, in a dose-dependent manner, is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.
Jia-Yi Dong et al. Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Diabetes Care 34:2116–2122, 2011.